“My frog is dead!” Tom croaked….
Franklin W. Dixon. Carolyn Keene. Victor Appleton. Familiar names, all three, as are their literary creations: The Hardy Boys. Nancy Drew. Tom Swift. How do these authors manage to have their names on such long-running series? (The first Hardy Boys adventure appeared in 1927; the most recent just this past February.)
The answer: these authors are all house names. That is to say, the name is a pseudonym that is owned not by the writer of a particular book, but by the publishing house, thus enabling the house to hire different writers at need for the series, or to have more than one writer at a time working on different books.
Frank and Joe Hardy (and Ms. Drew, and Tom Swifts Senior, Junior, and III) were creations of the Stratemeyer Syndicate, and their prolific adventures were made possible in part by the detailed outlines which the syndicate provided to…
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